Commit d7dd7a75 authored by Dario's avatar Dario
Browse files

Added DE section pt.1 + minor fix

parent 48c1aee5
......@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@ Currently it is not necessary for the user to compile the sources of each progra
To compile some programs, some libraries and other programmes are necessary. If we tried to compile a program that had dependencies with other libraries and other programs, we should install these "dependencies" previously to its compilation. Likewise, if we want to install a binary we will need to have installed the necessary dependencies for its correct operation.
To manage these dependencies and the "packages" installation, package managers have been created. There are numerous packet managers, some graphics and other in command line. In this chapter, we will see one of the most famous, created by the Debian developers, and the one used by Parrot... **APT**.
To manage these dependencies and the "packages" installation, package managers have been created. There are numerous packet managers, some graphics and other in command line. In this chapter, we will see one of the most famous, created by the Debian developers, and the one used by Parrot: **APT**.
The main functions of a package manager must be:
......@@ -19,8 +19,6 @@ The main functions of a package manager must be:
The package manager must check in a given location (it can be a local directory or a network address), the availability of such software. The locations are called repositories. The system maintains configuration files to check their repositories location.
Let's start...
## List of Repositories ##
Although in Parrot it is not necessary (nor recommended) to add new repositories or modify existing ones, we will see where we can configure them. In the file system, in the path "/etc/sources.list.d", we find the file parrot.list. The content of this file should be:
......@@ -31,8 +29,6 @@ Although in Parrot it is not necessary (nor recommended) to add new repositories
With this, we make sure to have the correct repositories list. In this location, the Parrot developers, keep the packages updated.
You can also see the file "Mirrors"
## Package Manager (APT) ##
The Parrot package manager is apt. This manager is responsible for installing packages, checking dependencies, updating the system, among other things. Let's see we can do with it. We will see the most common options, but we can see several man pages (apt, apt-get, apt-cache, dpkg)
......
......@@ -151,6 +151,6 @@ The "DENIED" lines should provide more information on what concrete process or a
sudo aa-unconfined
also possible with the --paranoid parameter
also possible with the `--paranoid` parameter.
Profiles in complain mode will send ALLOWED lines in the logs for entries that would normally be DENIED in enforce mode. You can use this to tweak configurations before turning them on in enforce mode.
# Desktop Enviroments #
Parrot OS, in addition to being available in the Security and Home editions, also uses various **Desktop Enviroments (DE)**. Each DE has its own peculiarity, but we recommend trying them out before deciding what to install.
Being basically a graphical interface through which the user can interact with the operating system, the possibilities to modify the various components of the DE are many. Each of the following DE gives the possibility to be customized according to one's tastes.
The difference between the three officially supported DE mainly concerns graphic aspects.
Feel free to [download](https://parrotsec.org/download/) the edition that is useful to you and with the DE that you like the most!
## MATE Desktop ##
[Download Home Edition](https://download.parrot.sh/parrot/iso/4.11.2/Parrot-home-4.11.2_amd64.iso)
\
[Download Security Edition](https://download.parrot.sh/parrot/iso/4.11.2/Parrot-security-4.11.2_amd64.iso)
<img src="./images/DE/mate.png"/>
## KDE Desktop ##
[Download Home Edition](https://download.parrot.sh/parrot/iso/4.11.2/Parrot-kde-home-4.11.2_amd64.iso)
\
[Download Security Edition](https://download.parrot.sh/parrot/iso/4.11.2/Parrot-kde-security-4.11.2_amd64.iso)
<img src="./images/DE/kde.png"/>
## XFCE Desktop ##
[Download Home Edition](https://download.parrot.sh/parrot/iso/4.11.2/Parrot-xfce-4.11.2_amd64.iso)
<img src="./images/DE/xfce.png"/>
......@@ -2,24 +2,24 @@
Previously we mentioned that, in Linux, all the files of the system belong to a user and a group. The owner of a file is the user who created it and the main group of this file is the group of the user who created it. For example, in previous chapters we worked with the user "parrot", if this user creates a file, the user "parrot" and the default group of the parrot user, will be the owners of this new file, so the file belongs to the parrot user and the default group of the parrot user. For this reason, we often need to use the "sudo" command to be able to read, modify or execute some files and programs of the system or make changes in the permissions of the files in question.
Let's analyze the output of the command "ls -l"
Let's analyze the output of the command `ls -l`
┌─[root@parrot]─[/home/parrot]
└──╼ # ls -l archivo.txt
-rw-rw-r-- 1 parrot hackers 0 oct 16 12:32 archivo.txt
└──╼ # ls -l archive.txt
-rw-rw-r-- 1 parrot hackers 0 oct 16 12:32 archive.txt
drwxr-xr-x 3 parrot hackers 4096 oct 15 16:25 scripts
The output of the command "ls -l" indicates whether it is a file (-) or directory (d), the permissions of the file/directory (rw-rw-r--), the following field (indicates the number of files/directories) user and group to which it belongs (parrot hackers), size (0), last modification date (Oct 16 12:32) and name (file.txt and scripts). Let's stop in the fields, permissions, user and group, and let's focus on the first field (file permissions). In Linux, the permissions management that the users and the groups of users have on the files and the folders, is carried out by means of a simple scheme of three types of permissions:
The output of the command `ls -l` indicates whether it is a file (-) or directory (d), the permissions of the file/directory (rw-rw-r--), the following field (indicates the number of files/directories) user and group to which it belongs (parrot hackers), size (0), last modification date (Oct 16 12:32) and name (file.txt and scripts). Let's stop in the fields, permissions, user and group, and let's focus on the first field (file permissions). In Linux, the permissions management that the users and the groups of users have on the files and the folders, is carried out by means of a simple scheme of three types of permissions:
Read permission, represented by the "r" letter.
**Read** permission, represented by the "**r**" letter.
Write permission, represented by the "w" letter.
**Write** permission, represented by the "**w**" letter.
Execution permission, repersented by the "x" letter.
**Execution** permission, repersented by the "**x**" letter.
The meanin of these premissions s different for files and folders, then we will explain each of the cases.
In the case of a .txt file, it has the following permissions:
In the case of a *.txt* file, it has the following permissions:
Owner Group Other Users
r w - r w - r - -
......@@ -57,11 +57,10 @@ Therefore, we come to the following conclusion:
| rwx rwx rwx | 777 |
| rwx r-x r-- | 754 |
| r-x r- - ----------- | 540 |
-------------------------------------
Having this clear, we can move to the use of "chmod", which help us managing the files and folders permissions.
Use of chmod
#### chmod ####
Basic syntax of chmod:
......@@ -93,38 +92,38 @@ Now the owner user and the members of the owner group have read, write and execu
Another way to add or remove permissions is using these modes:
\
a --> indicates that it will be applied to all
`a` --> indicates that it will be applied to all
\
u --> indicates that it will be applied to the user
`u` --> indicates that it will be applied to the user
\
g --> indicates that it will be applied to the group
`g` --> indicates that it will be applied to the group
\
o --> indicates that it will apply to others
`o` --> indicates that it will apply to others
\
° --> indicates that the permission is added
`+` --> indicates that the permission is added
\
° --> indicates that the permission is removed
`-` --> indicates that the permission is removed
\
r --> indicates read permission
`r` --> indicates read permission
\
w --> indicates write permission
`w` --> indicates write permission
\
x--> indicates execution permission
`x` --> indicates execution permission
\
The basic syntax for using "chmod" with these modes is as follows:
# chmod [a | u | g | o] [+ | -] [r | w | x]
chmod [a | u | g | o] [+ | -] [r | w | x]
That is, to whom the permit is applied, add or remove permission and type pf permit that is to be added or removed.
These would be possible combinations:
- a+r Read permissions for all
- +r As before, if nothing is indicated, 'a' is assumed.
- og-x Removes execution permission from all but the user.
- u+rwx Gives all the permissions to the user.
- o-rwx Remove the permissions fron the others.
- `a+r` Read permissions for all
- `+r` As before, if nothing is indicated, 'a' is assumed.
- `og-x` Removes execution permission from all but the user.
- `u+rwx` Gives all the permissions to the user.
- `o-rwx` Remove the permissions fron the others.
Example of use:
......@@ -140,7 +139,7 @@ Example of use:
If we analyze the result of the previous execution, we can notice how the execution permissions have been eliminated for all system users, including the members of the owner group, except the owner user, which conserves the read, write and execute permissions.
## Use of the command chown
#### chown ####
Chwon (Change owner) is another system utility that allows us to make changes to the ownership of the files, it looks like "chmod" but the function it performs is different. As the name implies, it is to change the owner of a file or folder.
......@@ -208,7 +207,7 @@ In the previous example, we can see how the user and group owner of all the file
In the previous example, you can see how the user who owns all the files within the scripts directory changed to parrot.
## Use of the command chgrp
#### chgrp ####
The chgrp command is used to change the group to which a file or directory belongs. Its basic sntaxis is the following:
......@@ -239,8 +238,10 @@ Example of use of chgrp:
-rwxrw---- 1 parrot parrot 235 oct 18 01:06 ping.sh
-rwxrw---- 1 parrot parrot 780 oct 18 01:17 wireless-dos-ids.py
-rwxrw---- 1 parrot parrot 1587 oct 18 01:05 wireless-dos.py
┌─[root@parrot]─[/home/parrot]
└──╼ #chown -R root:root scripts/
┌─[root@parrot]─[/home/parrot]
└──╼ #ls -l scripts/
total 16
......@@ -248,6 +249,7 @@ Example of use of chgrp:
-rwxrw---- 1 root root 235 oct 18 01:06 ping.sh
-rwxrw---- 1 root root 780 oct 18 01:17 wireless-dos-ids.py
-rwxrw---- 1 root root 1587 oct 18 01:05 wireless-dos.py
┌─[root@parrot]─[/home/parrot]
└──╼ #
......@@ -260,8 +262,10 @@ In the previous example, we can see how the user and group owner of all the file
-rwxrw---- 1 root root 235 oct 18 01:06 ping.sh
-rwxrw---- 1 root root 780 oct 18 01:17 wireless-dos-ids.py
-rwxrw---- 1 root root 1587 oct 18 01:05 wireless-dos.py
┌─[root@parrot]─[/home/parrot]
└──╼ #chown -R parrot scripts/
┌─[root@parrot]─[/home/parrot]
└──╼ #ls -l scripts/
total 16
......@@ -269,6 +273,7 @@ In the previous example, we can see how the user and group owner of all the file
-rwxrw---- 1 parrot root 235 oct 18 01:06 ping.sh
-rwxrw---- 1 parrot root 780 oct 18 01:17 wireless-dos-ids.py
-rwxrw---- 1 parrot root 1587 oct 18 01:05 wireless-dos.py
┌─[root@parrot]─[/home/parrot]
└──╼ #
......
......@@ -4,8 +4,9 @@
- [Introduction]()
- [What is Parrot](<./01.- What is Parrot.md>)
- [Download Parrot](<./02.- Download Parrot.md>)
- [What is GNU/Linux](<./21.- GNU-Linux basics.md>)
- [Download Parrot](<./02.- Download Parrot.md>)
- [Desktop Enviroments](<./26.- Desktop Enviroments.md>)
- [Installation]()
- [Install Parrot](<./03.- Installation.md>)
......
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